Be on schedule.Score better.


9.2. Post an example from the popular press (with link) on associations claimed to be causal Respond to one of these examples as well Post should be

9.2. Post an example from the popular press
(with link) on associations claimed to be
Respond to one of these examples as well
Post should be 1 paragraph and so should the response


Causal Associations between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and

Links to an external site.
This example shows a study that wanted to look at the relationship between

PTSD or post traumatic stress disorder and COVID-19. The research looked
at PTSD and two different covid conditions such as SARS-CoV-2 infection
and hospitalization using MR analyses or Mendelian randomization.
The analysis gave results for hospitalization at (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.67,
p = 0.001) and infection at (odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% confidence interval
(CI): 1.00–1.21, p = 0.048). The studies concluded that there is a causal
association of PTSD with an increased risk for COVID-19 vulnerability and
extremity. The research also suggested that through treating PTSD early on it
could help with the causal association. I feel that when people have PTSD,
their immune system is lowered due to high levels of stress and cortisol.
Which would end up lending to being associated with being at more risk to get
infected or be hospitalized.
The article claimed that, though PTSD is a causal association for COVID-19
infection or hospitalization, COVID-19 or hospitalization is not a causal
association with PTSD. I find this could be proved untrue. I think a lot of
people suffer from PTSD due to having COVID-19 or being hospitalized from
it but that would take another study to look at.

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Sharise Talley

Sharise Talley

May 27 at 9:56am

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Title: “Causal Association Between COVID-19 and Pregnancy Outcomes”

Source: JAMA Network Open
Summary: A recent study published in JAMA Network Open explores the
causal association between COVID-19 infection and pregnancy outcomes.
The study utilizes data from large-scale population surveys and longitudinal
studies to investigate whether COVID-19 infection during pregnancy is
associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth, stillbirth,
and neonatal complications. While the study does not establish definitive
causation, it provides evidence of a potential link between COVID-19 infection
and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The findings highlight the importance of
prioritizing pregnant individuals for COVID-19 vaccination and implementing
preventive measures to mitigate the risk of infection during pregnancy. Further
research is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this
association and inform clinical management strategies for pregnant
individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Aileen Lor

Aileen Lor

May 27 at 7:40pm

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Hi Sharise,

Thank you for your post!
The causal association between COVID-19 and Pregnancy has been
an ongoing topic in the healthcare region. It’s interesting to note that
there is still research that needs to be done to see the ongoing
mechanisms to see how this association can be affected in the long
One thing I found interesting in your study is their statement about
prioritizing pregnant individuals for COVID-19 vaccination. I wonder
how this can be followed up with the causation of the outcome of those
who are not vaccinated.
Thank you for your post!

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Aileen Lor

Aileen Lor

May 27 at 7:35pm

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Evidence for a Causal Association of Low Birth Weight and

Attention Problems
Link: Evidence for a Causal Association of Low Birth Weight and Attention
Problems – ScienceDirect

Links to an external site.
In a study done by VU University Amsterdam, low birth weight (LBW) is

associated with attention problems (AP), along with ADHD. The study states
that the etiology of the association is unclear, but investigates whether there
is a causal influence of birth weight on APs and if that birth weight is
medicated to catch up on growth in LBW children.
The method that was use was to have longitudinal data from about >29,000
twins that were registered with the Netherlands Twin Register with a birth
weight under or equal to 1,5000g and an age of about 32 weeks. They were
analyzed in a control method. “Hyperactivity and AP were assessed at ages
3, 7, 10, and 12 years; weight was assessed at birth and age 2 years.”
The results of the study showed that children in the lowest birth weight
category (1,500 to 2,000g) had a data of 0.18 to 0.37 standard deviations
higher on AP than children who were in the category of birth weight 3,000 to
3,5000g. Children who were lower in birth weight scored higher hyperactivity
and AP than children with higher birth weights. “This pattern is consistent with
a causal effect of BW on AP.”
The conclusion the study came to was that the results strongly indicated that
the association between birth weight and AP was casual.

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