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ALBERTO’S DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. In your own words, explain what a budget is and the difference between a static and flexible budget. Why would it


1. In your own words, explain what a budget is and the difference between a static and flexible budget. Why would it be important for a business to have a flexible budget versus a static budget?

2. Budgets are developed months before the end of the current year and are best-guess estimates of future performance. What do you think might be some pitfalls of budgeting, and how can they be avoided?


1. What are two common reasons to use a factorial design? Describe why Bartholow and Heinz’s word association study on alcohol and thoughts of aggression was a factorial design.

2. Explain why experimenters usually prioritize internal validity over external validity when it is difficult to achieve both.

3. For this assignment, you will choose two EMPIRICAL articles that make an association or causal claim. You will summarize and interrogate these articles using the three claims, four validities framework discussed in class. 


Read through each article carefully and write a summary of each article. Write about the articles in everyday language, explaining the theory each was testing, the method used, the most important results, and the main points in the discussion. Be very careful not to plagiarize at this stage (please reread the course resources on academic integrity (plagiarism) and the APA guide on paraphrasing).

Write 250 words for each summary (for a total of 500 words following this organizational structure:

· Describe the article’s purpose and main hypotheses.

· Identify the study’s design: Experimental or correlational.

· Describe the subjects who participated in the study and each key variable.

· Describe the main results and the author’s conclusions.


In 500-600 words for each article (1,000-1,200-words total), evaluate each of your articles using the four big validities.

For each article, work through the four big validities (construct validity, external validity, statistical validity, and internal validity) in turn, indicating whether the article does a good or bad job on each front. As you write, keep in mind that you are demonstrating your mastery of this material. Show that you know how to ask questions about each of the four validities. Demonstrate that you know what the answers to these questions mean. Use the attached “Article Interrogation Guide” to ensure you are investigating the appropriate material for each section.

This assignment uses a template. YOU MUST USE THE ATTACHED “Article Interrogation Template” TO RECEIVE FULL CREDIT FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT. 

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.


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