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Description Hi, looking for support with the following:  Motivation This week, we learned about motivational strategies and why to use different

Description

Hi, looking for support with the following: 

Motivation

This week, we learned about motivational strategies and why to use different strategies with different cultures. For this discussion, choose a country other than your own, and then decide which of the Motivation Theories described in the chapter would be the best to use with employees in that country. Then give an example of a motivational technique you would use as a manager to motivate your employees. 

Directions:

Discuss the concepts, principles, and theories      from the attached given slide and below sources, it’s a MUST. Cite Fand from      them, and other sources. At least two more academic sources. 

Chapter 12
Motivation across Cultures
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Learning Objectives
• Define motivation, and explain it as a
psychological process
• Examine the hierarchy-of-needs, two-factor,
and achievement motivation theories, and
assess their value to international human
resource management
• Discuss how an understanding of employee
satisfaction can be useful in human resource
management throughout the world
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Learning Objectives (continued)
• Examine the value of process theories in
motivating employees worldwide
• Understand the importance of job design,
work centrality, and rewards in motivating
employees in an international context
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Motivating Employees in a
Multicultural Context
• Motivating and rewarding diverse workforces
is a significant challenge to organizations
• Employee preferences are correlated with
culture
• Managers must be aware that a reward in one
culture may be viewed differently in another
culture
• Managers focus on extrinsic rewards and
ignore intrinsic rewards
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Figure 12.1 – Basic Motivation Process
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Determinants of Motivation
• Intrinsic
– Individual experiences fulfillment through carrying
out an activity and helping others
• Extrinsic
– External environment and result of the activity in
the form of competition and compensation or
incentive plans are of great importance
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Universalist Assumption
• Motivation process is universal
– Culture influences the specific content and goals
pursued
– Specific needs and goals can be different between
two cultures
• Move toward free-market economies and
emergence of new opportunities will change
the ways in which individuals are motivated
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Assumption of Content and Process
• Content theories
– Explain work motivation in terms of what arouses,
energizes, or initiates employee behavior
– Subject of most research in the field
• Process theories
– Explain work motivation by how employee
behavior is initiated, redirected, and halted
– More sophisticated and focused on individual
behavior in specific setting
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory
• Known as Maslow’s theory
• Five basic needs constitute a need hierarchy
– Physiological: Basic physical needs for water, food,
clothing, and shelter
– Safety: Desires for security, stability, and absence
of pain
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory (continued)
– Social: Desires to interact and affiliate with others
and the need to feel wanted by others
– Esteem: Needs for power and status
– Self-actualization: Desire to reach one’s full
potential
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Assumptions Made by Maslow’s
Theory
• Lower-level needs must be satisfied before
higher-level needs become motivators
• Need that is satisfied no longer motivates
• More ways to satisfy higher-level needs than
to satisfy lower-level needs
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
International Findings on Maslow’s
Theory
• Haire group’s study indicated that all needs
are important to respondents across cultures
– Upper-level needs were of particular importance
to international managers
– Respondents reported that autonomy and selfactualization were the most important and leastsatisfied needs
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
International Findings on Maslow’s
Theory (continued)
• Some researchers suggested modification of
Maslow’s Western-oriented hierarchy
– Nevis’s collectivist need hierarchy
• Belonging (social)
• Physiological
• Safety
• Self-actualization (in service of society)
• Hofstede reported a link between job types
and levels and the need hierarchy
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
• Formulated by Frederick Herzberg and his
colleagues
• Identifies two sets of factors that influence job
satisfaction
– Motivators: Job-content factors that ensure
satisfaction
• Achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement,
and the work itself
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
(continued)
– Hygiene factors: Job-context variables that lead to
dissatisfaction when they are not taken care of
• Salary, interpersonal relations, technical supervision,
working conditions, and company policies and
administration
• Criticisms
– Classification of money as a hygiene factor and
not as a motivator
– Findings support a theory of job satisfaction and
not a total theory of motivation
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Two-Factor Theory of Motivation:
International Findings
• Research holds the overall theory to be true
• Cross-cultural studies show that motivators
tend to be of more importance to job
satisfaction than are hygiene factors
• Results indicate that job content is more
important than job context
• Motivation-hygiene theory must be applied on
a country-by-country or a regional basis
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Achievement Motivation Theory
• Holds that individuals can have a need to get
ahead, attain success, and reach objectives
• States that need for achievement is learned
• Relies solely on the Thematic Apperception
Test (TAT) to measure individual achievement
• Does not explain the need for achievement in
cultures in which individual accomplishment is
neither valued nor rewarded
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
High Achievers
• Like situations in which they take personal
responsibility for finding solutions to problems
• Tend to be moderate risk takers rather than
high or low risk takers
• Want concrete feedback on performance
• Tend to be loners and not team players
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Achievement Motivation Theory:
International Findings
• Theory must be modified to meet specific
needs of local culture
– Culture of many countries does not support high
achievement
– Anglo cultures and those rewarding
entrepreneurial effort support achievement
motivation, and their human resources should be
managed accordingly
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Select Process Theories
Equity
theory
Goal-setting
theory
Expectancy
theory
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Equity Theory
• Focuses on how motivation is affected by
people’s perception of how fairly they are
being treated
– Job performance is positive when people perceive
they are treated equitably
– Job performance is negative when people believe
they are not treated fairly and are dissatisfied
• Supported in the West but has mixed results
internationally
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Equity Theory:
International Findings
• In Israeli kibbutz production unit, everyone is
treated the same but managers reported
lower satisfaction levels than workers
• Employees in Asia and the Middle East readily
accept inequitable treatment in order to
preserve group harmony
• In Japan and Korea, men and women receive
different pay for doing same work
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Goal-Setting Theory
• Focuses on how individuals set goals and
respond to them and overall impact of this
process on motivation
• Specific areas given attention
– Level of participation in goal setting
– Goal difficulty
– Goal specificity
– Importance of objective
– Timely feedback to progress toward goals
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Goal-Setting Theory (continued)
• Has been continually refined and developed
• Research shows that employees perform well
if they are assigned specific and challenging
goals that they have had a hand in setting
– Most studies have been conducted in the U.S.
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Goal-Setting Theory: International
Findings
• In the U.S., employee participation in goal
setting is motivational
• U.K. and Norwegian workers prefer to have
their union representatives work with
management in determining work goals
• Value of goal-setting theory may well be
determined by culture
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Expectancy Theory
• Postulates that motivation is influenced by a
person’s belief that:
– Effort will lead to performance
– Performance will lead to specific outcomes
– Outcomes will be of value to the individual
• Predicts that high performance followed by
high rewards will lead to high satisfaction
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Expectancy Theory: International
Findings
• Theory seems culture-bound
– May have less value in societies where people
believe that much of what happens is beyond
their control
– Able to explain worker motivation in cultures
where there is a strong internal locus of control
• Managers must be aware of limitations in
their efforts to apply the theory to motivate
human resources
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Job Design
• Job’s content, the methods that are used on
the job, and the way the job relates to other
jobs in the organization
• Quality of work life (QWL) – Directly related to
culture of the country
• Challenge for MNCs – Adjusting job design to
meet the needs of the host country’s culture
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Sociotechnical Designs
• Job designs that blend personnel and
technology
• Objective – Integrate new technology into the
workplace so that workers accept and use it to
increase overall productivity
– Employee resistance is common as new
technology requires people to learn new methods
• Must be a result of job to be done and cultural
values that support a particular approach
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Work Centrality
• Importance of work in an individual’s life
relative to other areas of interest
• Provides vital insights into how to motivate
human resources in different cultures
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Work Centrality (continued)
• Levels
– Highest – Japan
– Moderately high – Israel
– Average – U.S. and Belgium
– Moderately low – Netherlands and Germany
– Low – Britain
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Value of Work
• Culture, gender, industry, and organizational
characteristics:
– Influence the degree and type of work centrality
within a country
– Interact with national cultural characteristics
• Growing interest exists in the impact of
overwork on employees
– Overwork or job burnout is now recognized as a
real social problem
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Job Satisfaction
• Motivation approaches used in one culture
may have limited value in another
• Assumption – Satisfaction is highest at the
upper levels of organizations
• Job attitudes toward quality of work life is
related to motivation
• Work is important in every society, but the
extent of importance varies
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Reward Systems
• Used to motivate personnel
• Financial – Salary raises, bonuses, and stock
options
• Nonfinancial – Feedback and recognition
• Differ from one country to another
– Differences are a result of competitive
environment or of government legislation
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Financial Incentive Systems
• Individual incentive-based pay systems
– Workers are paid directly for their output
• Organizational incentive-based pay systems
– Employees earn individual bonuses based on how
well the organization achieves certain goals
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Incentives and Culture
• Compensation is based on group membership
or group effort in many cultures
– Systems are designed to stress equality
• Type of rewards that are used is not culturebound
• Cultures
– Can affect the overall cost of an incentive system
– Influence the effectiveness of various rewards
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Be the Management Consultant
• As an international management consultant,
how do you view this partnership for Indosat
Ooredoo with IBM?
– How does this partnership help IBM?
– If you were a consultant for an unrelated
company, does this deal increase your interest in
expanding into Indonesia?
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Review and Discuss
1. Do people throughout the world have needs
similar to those described in Maslow’s need
hierarchy?
– What does your answer reveal about using
universal assumptions regarding motivation?
2. Is Herzberg’s two-factor theory universally
applicable to human resource management,
or is its value limited to Anglo countries?
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Review and Discuss (continued 1)
3. What are the dominant characteristics of
high achievers?
– Using Figure 12–7 as your point of reference,
determine which countries likely will have the
greatest percentage of high achievers
• Why is this so? Of what value is your answer to the
study of international management?
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Review and Discuss (continued 2)
4. A U.S. manufacturer is planning to open a
plant in Sweden
– What should this firm know about the quality of
work life in Sweden that would have a direct
effect on job design in the plant?

Give an example
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Review and Discuss (continued 3)
5. What does a U.S. firm setting up operations
in Japan need to know about work centrality
in that country?
– How would this information be of value to the
multinational?
– Conversely, what would a Japanese firm need to
know about work centrality in the United States?
Explain
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scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Review and Discuss (continued 4)
6. In managing operations in Europe, which
process theory―equity, goal-setting, or
expectancy―would be of most value to an
American manager? Why?
7. What do international managers need to
know about the use of reward incentives to
motivate personnel? What role does culture
play in this process?
© 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied,
scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

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