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62. When researchers, clients, and stakeholders work together in the research project, the form of research being conducted is likely to be

a. Systemic action research

b. Practitioner action research

c. Participatory action research

d. Stakeholder action research

63. Verbal and nonverbal interactions between two or more persons and their interactions around an issue are focused on in

a. First person practice

b. Second person practice

c. Third person practice

d. First and third person integration

64. Declaring the focus or intent of a group or an occasion is known as

a. Framing

b. Advocating

c. Illustrating

d. Inquiring

65. The degree to which those involved in the action research process are energized to help facilitating lasting social change is known as

a. Democratic validity

b. Process validity

c. Catalytic validity

d. Dialogical validity

66. When a researcher works with direct observation of a child with autism, asks parents to complete a behavior rating scale, and interviews a teacher about the child, the researcher is using

a. Tripartite methodology

b. Participant-observer methodology

c. Unnecessary means of data collection

d. Triangulation

67. There are multiple motives for conducting program evaluation. Of the following, which is the primary reason for conducting program evaluation?

a. Managed care has significantly reduced the amount of time clients can be in services

b. It is ethically responsible for best practice in counseling

c. Provides evidence for new or continued funding sources

d. Counselors are afforded research and publication opportunities

68. Which of the following is true?

a. Outcome evaluation is concerned with changes that occurred in participants

b. Process evaluation focuses on making value judgments about the totality of the program

c. Outcome evaluation is concerned with delivery of the program

d. Process evaluation is concerned with changes that occurred in participants

69. The starting point for any program evaluation is

a. Developing a research instrument

b. Collecting data

c. Talking with stakeholders about their perceptions

d. Determining needs based on the mission statement of the program

70. Which of the following is true regarding the differences between program evaluation and research?

a. The control of research is dispersed among stakeholder

b. Program evaluation is more generalizable than research

c. Research is more subjective

d. Program evaluation make value judgments about the worth of a program

71. Program evaluation models that depend on identified objectives and quantitative data are considered

a. Numerical models

b. Consumer oriented models

c. Expertise approaches

d. Utilitarian models

72. When the program evaluation is conducted to determine how well the aims of the program have been achieved, it is known as

a. Management-oriented model

b. Objectives -oriented model

c. Contextual-oriented model

d. Consumer-oriented model

73. The judicial adversary model and the accreditation model are examples of

a. Management-oriented model

b. Objectives -oriented model

c. Contextual-oriented model

d. Expertise-oriented model

74. Scriven’s goal-free model uses checklists and product or program testing to yield reliable data giving weight to all responses to a program and is an example of

a. Management-oriented model

b. Objectives -oriented model

c. Contextual-oriented model

d. Consumer-oriented model

75. A program evaluator who determines that the results of the proposed evaluation will most benefit those who participate in the program or who are stakeholders will employ which model of program evaluation?

a. Utilitarian model

b. Institutionist/pluralist model

c. Contextual-oriented model

d. Consumer-oriented model

76. CACREP utilizes an approach to program evaluation that fits which model most closely?

a. Utilitarian model

b. Institutionist/pluralist model

c. Contextual-oriented model

d. Consumer-oriented model

77. A form of program evaluation that emphasizes opposing views supporting their position and refuting the opposing position is known as

a. Utilitarian model

b. Institutionist/pluralist model

c. Contextual-oriented model

d. Judicial and adversary model

78. Ongoing interaction between evaluator and stakeholders is expected in which approach?

a. Participant-oriented

b. Expert

c. Judicial and adversary

d. Accreditation

79. Which of the following is true regarding the responsive evaluation model?

a. Focus is straightforward and does not alter

b. Steps include initial planning and focusing; conducting observations; and organizing and reporting results

c. It is a rarely used approach

d. It gathers a synthesized version of data

80. A counselor tracking relapse and return to treatment rates of past inpatient A&D clients may best be served using the following method of collecting evaluation information

a. Group

b. Individual

c. Behavioral

d. Narrative

81. ALL BUT WHICH of the following are true regarding focus groups

a. They are convenient

b. They originated in marketing research

c. Focus groups function better when participants know each other

d. Focus groups allow for more comprehensive responses as participants build off of one another’s comments

82. Opinion surveys are widely used approaches to data collection that rely heavily on

a. The technical elements and adequacy of the instrument

b. The skill of the researcher conducting the survey

c. Availability of focus groups

d. Behavioral indicators

83. ALL BUT WHICH of the following is true about key informant interviews

a. They are in depth interviews of people who know what is going on in the community

b. The informant is free to provide candid opinions

c. It is possible that results will be biased

d. They are most helpful when conducting covert research

84. All BUT WHICH of the following are true regarding research reports

a) Published reports are occasionally poorly written

b) The written report is the permanent record of the research

c) Research reports are archival documents for other scientist practitioners

d) Research reports are based solely on papers presented at professional conferences

85. The authors discuss three types of research reports. Which of the following is not considered a type of research report?

a. Journal articles

b. Dissertations/Theses

c. Book chapters

d. Dissertation/Thesis proposals

86. An important consideration of the research report title is

a. It should reflect the desired outcome of the research

b. It should ensure that the research can be accessed by those interested in the topic

c. Titles are not important in the research report writing process

d. The APA manual contains no guidelines relative to titling the research report

87. All BUT WHICH of the following are true relative to research report abstracts

a. It is a brief but thorough summary of the article

b. It is a rarely read element of the research report

c. Individual journal guidelines for abstracts may differ from APA manual guidelines

d. Abstracts never include information that is not included in the research report

88. An introduction to a research report should contain

a. Statement of the problem, overview of relevant research, and research questions/hypotheses

b. Statement of the problem, participants, and research design

c. Research design, procedures, and instruments

d. Research design, overview of relevant research, and results

89. An overview of relevant research, also known as a literature review, is important because

a. It is an exhaustive and thorough integration of all related research

b. The literature review strengthens the framework the researcher uses to approach the study

c. It addresses relevant empirical and theoretical research on the topic at hand

d. All of the above are true

e. b & c only

90. The methods section of a research report contains

a. Results of the study

b. Relevant literature

c. Participants, measures, design

d. The introduction

91. Statistical analyses are included in which section of the research report?

a. Introduction

b. Methods

c. Results

d. Discussion

92. The section most appropriate for drawing conclusions between the current study and existing research is

a. Introduction

b. Methods

c. Results

d. Discussion

93. The section often referred to as the “how to” component of the research report is

a. Introduction

b. Methods

c. Results

d. Discussion

94. The chapter authors give some guidance to research report writers including

a. Practice writing and getting feedback

b. Anticipate rewriting

c. Begin to write to overcome writer’s block

d. All of the above

95. The bridge in research report writing refers to

a. An organized overview of literature that builds an argument for conducting of the study

b. Results of the current study

c. How the writer answers the question “why this, why now?”

d. Both a & c

96. A common mistake in writing research reports is

a. Failing to include the results sections

b. Failing to follow the publication guidelines

c. Co-authorship

d. Length

97. Researchers may be accused of bias in their writing meaning

a. They have reviewed only those studies that support the argument they hope to make with their findings

b. The language is gender neutral

c. Methodology is incomplete

d. All of the above

98. Critical to research report writing is

a. Ensuring the manuscript is 15 pages in length

b. Reporting of both supportive and contradicting studies in the overview of relevant research

c. Including previous research from all co-authors of the study

d. None of the above

99. Researchers are remiss if they do not include __________ in the results section?

a. Discussion points

b. A discussion of statistical versus clinical significance

c. Effect size

d. Both b & c

100.Common problems in discussion sections include ALL BUT WHICH of the following?

a. Failure to delineate limitations to the study

b. Going beyond the data

c. Weak abstract

d. Failure to discuss implications and recommendations

101.Blind review simply means that the reviewers are unaware of who authored the manuscript.



102.Typical manuscript initial review time for journal consideration is 18 months.



103.Reporting effect size is optional and not advisable for most empirical manuscripts.



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