Amniocentesis has suggested that a couple’s first child will be born with sickle cell disease. The parents are unfamiliar with the health problem, and their caregiver is explaining the complexities. Which of the following statements by the parents would suggest a need for further teaching or clarification?
A. “Our baby’s red cells are prone to early destruction because of his or her weak membranes.”
B. “Our son or daughter likely won’t show the effects of sickling until he or she is school-aged because of the different hemoglobin in babies.”
C. “Not all of his or her red cells will be sickled, but low oxygen levels can cause them to become so.”
D. “Sickled cells can block his or her blood vessels, especially in the abdomen, chest, and bones.”
During science class, a student asks, “What’s the difference between plasma and serum in the blood?” The nurse responds that the primary difference between plasma and serum is that plasma contains
A. hydrogen ions.
C. white blood cells.
During a flu shot clinic, one of the questions the student nurse asks relates to whether the patient has had Guillain-Barré syndrome in his medical history. The patient asks, “What is that?” How should the nursing student reply?
A. “A type of paralysis that affects movement on both sides of the body that may even involve the respiratory muscles”
B. “Influenza-like illness where you had fever and chills for 2 to 3 days after your last flu shot”
C. “A degenerative disease where you have trouble walking without the help of a cane or walker”
D. “Swelling of your arm where you got your flu shot, and maybe your eyes and lips had some swelling as well”
A 22-year-old female college student is shocked to receive a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. What are the etiology and most likely treatment for her health problem?
A. Excess acetylcholinesterase production; treatment with thymectomy
B. A decline in functioning acetylcholine receptors; treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins
C. Cerebellar lesions; surgical and immunosuppressive treatment
D. Autoimmune destruction of skeletal muscle cells; treatment with intensive physical therapy and anabolic steroids
A baseball player was hit in the head with a bat during practice. In the emergency department, the physician tells the family that he has a “coup”injury. How will the nurse explain this to the family so they can understand?
A. “It’s like squeezing an orange so tight that the juice runs out of the top.”
B. “When the bat hit his head, his neck jerked backward causing injury to the spine.”
C. “Your son has a contusion of the brain at the site where the bat hit his head.”
D. “Your son has a huge laceration inside his brain where the bat hit his skull.”
Which of the following glycoproteins is responsible for treating such diseases as bone marrow failure following chemotherapy and hematopoietic neoplasms such as leukemia? Answers:
A. Growth factors and cytokines
B. T lymphocytes and natural killer cells
C. Neutrophils and eosinophils
D. Natural killer cells and granulocytes