A 53-year-old man presents with inability to concentrate, itching in his fingers and toes, elevated blood pressure, and unexplained weight loss. He is diagnosed with primary polycythemia. What will be the primary goal of his treatment?
A. To increase the amount of oxygen distributed by his red blood cells
B. To reduce the viscosity of his blood
C. To reduce the mean size of his red cells
D. To control his hypertension
During a late night study session, a pathophysiology student reaches out to turn the page of her textbook. Which of the following components of her nervous system contains the highest level of control of her arm and hand action?
C. Frontal lobe
D. Basal ganglia
The family members of an elderly patient are wondering why his “blood counts” are not rising after his last GI bleed. They state, “He has always bounced back after one of these episodes, but this time it isn’t happening. Do you know why?” The nurse will respond based on which of the following pathophysiological principles?
A. “Don’t worry about it. We can always give him more blood.”
B. “Due to stress, the red blood cells of older adults are not replaced as promptly as younger people.”
C. “Everything slows down when you get older. You just have to wait and see what happens.”
D. “The doctor may start looking for another cause of his anemia, maybe cancer of the bone.”
A 44-year-old female patient presents to the emergency department with abnormal bleeding and abdominal pain that is later attributed to gallbladder disease. Which of the following diagnoses would the medical team be most justified in suspecting as a cause of the patient’s bleeding?
A. Hemophilia B
B. Vitamin K deficiency
C. Excess calcium
D. Idiopathic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
Your ESRD patient is receiving 2 units of packed red blood cells for anemia (Hgb of 8.2). Twenty minutes into the first transfusion, the nurse observes the patient has a flushed face, hives over upper body trunk, and is complaining of pain in lower back. His vital signs include pulse rate of 110 and BP drop to 95/56.What is the nurse’s priority action? Answers:
A. Recheck the type of blood infusing with the chart documentation of patient’s blood type. B. Discontinue the transfusion and begin an infusion of normal saline.
C. Slow the rate of the blood infusion to 50 mL/hour.
D. Document the assessment as the only action.
A 5th grade elementary student asks the school nurse how much blood is in an entire body. The nurse should respond that the average grown-up adult has
A. 2 to 4 cups of blood in his or her body.
B. 5 to 6 L of blood throughout his or her body.
C. 3 pints of blood in total.
D. 3 to 4 quarts of blood in his or her body.