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See Attachment below. Writing Assignment #2- BIOL 150 (75 Points) Victoria’s Story- Past, Present, and Future

See Attachment below.

Writing Assignment #2- BIOL 150 (75 Points)

Victoria’s Story- Past, Present, and Future

In recent times, science has progressed tremendously in its potential to treat genetic diseases such as sickle cell anemia with a new technique called CRISPR. By utilizing the resources in this folder, you will learn more about sickle cell anemia, what CRISPR is, how it has been and might be used to treat sickle cell anemia, and procedures (IVF/PGD) that couples at risk for having offspring with sickle cell anemia (or other genetic diseases) can utilize to ensure their offspring will be free of the disease.

After you have reviewed the resources, you are to answer the following prompts in a response paper. The first prompts relate to the science behind inheriting the disease and the technology of the treatments, and then you will be asked to consider the ethics of the current procedures (which are also discussed in the article) and even consider a future option that might become available in the second set of prompts. You will then conclude by discussing how this information relates to disciplines/topics outside the realm of science, the limits of science, and how this investigation of these topics is beneficial to you becoming a well-educated citizen.

IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPLETING PAPER:

· BE SURE TO ANSWER ALL OF THE PROMPTS BELOW AS THIS IS EXACTLY HOW I WILL GRADE YOU!

·
AS YOU WRITE THIS, IT SHOULD FLOW LIKE A PAPER, SO YOU WILL NEED GOOD TRANSITIONS BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS ETC TO CONNECT THE IDEAS!

· MOST IMPORTANTLY- GET YOUR INFORMATION FROM THE RESOURCES PROVIDED (NOT AI OR OTHER SOURCES ON THE INTERNET) AND USE YOUR OWN WORDS/PARAPHRASE – this shows you fully understand it!

If you do not paraphrase, this could result in a rewrite or possibly a 0.

· YOU DO NOT HAVE TO CITE ANYTHING IF YOU USE THE PROVIDED RESOURCES, SO PLEASE DO (but you still must paraphrase)!

· If you choose to use alternative sources (although not recommended), you MUST paraphrase and cite those sources

. Failing to do so can result in a rewrite or possibly a 0.

· If you have questions about the Mendelian Genetics/inheritance part of the paper, please utilize the Power Point in this folder (and/or Module 8.2) and if you are still confused, ASK YOUR INSTRUCTOR (not the Internet)! This will also help prepare you for this part of the final exam.

· You will turn your completed paper into

Turnitin
.

· To fulfill the requirements of the paper, a well-developed paragraph (or two depending on prompt) that thoroughly answers the questions for each prompt is recommended.

· Be sure to proofread for grammar errors etc. before you submit!!


Part I- The science behind the disease and the treatments

· After reading the article and listening to the “7-minute listen”, IN YOUR OWN WORDS, introduce sickle cell as a genetic disease; describe what it is, some of the symptoms and possible negative outcomes for someone that has it. Use your understanding of Mendelian genetics to explain how Victoria Gray inherited sickle cell disease even though neither of her parents suffers from it. (10 points)

· After watching the video, introduce CRISPR as a gene editing tool by describing briefly how it works. From the article (and including the 7 minute listen), describe the specific steps that Victoria went through 4 years ago to receive this trial treatment for sickle cell using CRISPR to edit her genes. Describe the positive results she has experienced from the treatment since then. Be sure to answer all of these IN YOUR OWN WORDS (10 points)

· Victoria has three children. Prior to having her children, her husband was tested for the sickle cell trait. Using your knowledge of Mendelian genetics, why was it important he was tested even though he did not have the disease? After he was tested, the results showed that there was no chance any of their offspring would suffer from sickle cell anemia. Due to this, what must her husband’s genotype be and what must be each of their children’s genotype for this trait be (
Remember: sickle cell is an autosomal recessive disease.
Use Punnett squares to help you determine the answers.)

(10 points)

· In the future, if any of Victoria’s children want to have children it would be important for them to ask their partners to be tested for the sickle cell trait if the partners do not suffer from it. Using your understanding of Mendelian Genetics, why is this so? Which resulting genotype of a partner would guarantee none of their offspring (Victoria’s grandchildren) would have any chance of suffering from sickle cell? What resulting genotype of a partner would mean there is a chance their offspring would suffer from it? What would that chance be? Explain these answers. (10 points)

· If the results of the genetic testing show there is some possibility that their offspring could suffer from sickle cell, there is a technology available that could help them eliminate the chance that any of their offspring would suffer from sickle cell. From reading the webpage, and IN YOUR OWN WORDS, explain how IVF and PDG work and could be used to ensure Victoria’s grandchildren do not have sickle cell anemia. (10 points)


Part II Ethical considerations

· If you were one of Victoria’s children and you knew there was a chance your offspring could suffer from sickle cell anemia, would you seek IVF/ PDG treatment to choose embryos that were free from the disease? Why or why not? What do you see as the pros and cons of these techniques? What are some ethical concerns you or others might have about these procedures? (5 points)

· It has been discussed that there could be a technology developed that would allow CRISPR to edit the gene at the time of PGD analysis (instead of wait until someone is fully developed to treat, such as Victoria), and then all the embryos would be disease-free prior to implantation, however, at this time, the scientific community is VERY cautious about using CRISPR with embryos due to many ethical concerns.

What are your thoughts on the potential of CRISPR being used to edit genes of embryos during PGD (prior to implantation),and what might be some ethical implications to consider related to that specific use of CRISPR?

What are your thoughts about using CRISPR as a gene editing tool to treat someone who suffers from sickle cell such as Victoria? What are some of the ethical concerns and questions that remain (from the article but IN YOUR OWN WORDS) related to using CRISPR to treat sickle cell in patients even though it has been approved by the FDA and currently being utilized at this point?

(10 points)


Part III Brief Conclusion

Explain how these scenarios illustrate examples of the relationship of science to other disciplines outside of the scientific arena. Be sure to also explain how science is limited in the questions it can answer. (5 points)

Conclude by explaining why an understanding of these topics (inheritance of genetic diseases, sickle cell anemia, CRISPR, IVF and PGD) contribute to you being a well-educated person in today’s society. (2 points)

Mechanics/Writing ability: grammar, spelling, transitions, sentence and paragraph structure, proper paraphrasing etc. (3 points)

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